Sensor is a device that detects or senses the value or changes of value of the variable being measured. The term sensor some times is used instead of the term detector, primary element or transducer.
The fusion of information from sensors with different physical characteristics, such as light, sound, etc enhances the understanding of our surroundings and provide the basis for planning, decision making, and control of autonomous and intelligent machines.
A sensor is a device that responds to some external stimuli and then provides some useful output. With the concept of input and output, one can begin to understand how sensors play a critical role in both closed and open loops.
One problem is that sensors have not been specified. In other words they tend to respond variety of stimuli applied on it without being able to differentiate one from another. Neverthless, sensors and sensor technology are necessary ingredients in any control type application. Without the feedback from the environment that sensors provide, the system has no data or reference points, and thus no way of understanding what is right or wrong g with its various elements.
Sensors are so important in automated manufacturing particularly in robotics. Automated manufacturing is essentially the procedure of remo0ving human element as possible from the manufacturing process. Sensors in the condition measurement category sense various types of inputs, condition, or properties to help monitor and predict the performance of a machine or system.
Multisensor Fusion And Integration
Multisensor integration is the synergistic use of the information provided by multiple sensory devices to assist in the accomplishment of a task by a system.
Multisensor fusion refers to any stage in the integration process where there is an actual combination of different sources of sensory information into one representational format.
The diagram represents multisensor integration as being a composite of basic functions. A group of n sensors provide input to the integration process. In order for the data from each sensor to be used for integration, it must first be effectively modelled. A sensor model represents the uncertainty and error in the data from each sensor and provides a measure of its quality that can be 7used by the subsequent integration functions.